In the United States, the age of adolescents at first gear intimate sexual intercourse has been shown to be a risk agent for other sexual risk behaviors, even farseeing term, 1 – 3 deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as for sexually transmitted disease ( STD ) acquisition and adolescent pregnancy. 2, 4 Adolescents continue to have the highest rates of STDs in the U.S., and adolescent pregnancy rates remain higher in the U.S. than in other industrialized countries. 5, 6
black adolescents are more likely than white adolescents to report inaugural intimate sexual intercourse at younger ages. 7 similarly, compared with white adolescents, black adolescents have higher rates of most doctor of sacred theology 8 angstrom well as higher rates of adolescent pregnancies and births. 6 Studies of individual- and family-level predictors of adolescent age at first sexual sexual intercourse have not fully explained the racial disparities. 9 Individual-level interventions aimed at delaying intimate intercourse have not been equally successful as interventions to reduce early hazardous sexual behaviors, such as unprotected sex. 10 Examining characteristics of the social environment can contextualize behavior and aid explain what puts individuals at differential gear gamble. The social environment likely influences individual sexual risk by shaping risk behaviors and social and sexual network patterns. 11 – 14
residential racial segregation ( hereafter, segregation ) —i.e., the spatial distribution of one racial group relative to another—continues to characterize many metropolitan areas ( MAs ) in the U.S., and bootleg people continue to experience segregation more than any other racial group. 15 – 18 segregation is defined by five distinct dimensions—isolation, concentration, centralization, bunch, and unevenness. 15 – 17 isolation of the black population from other racial groups, or the probability that black people share neighborhoods with other black people quite than white people, may strengthen within-group social norms. concentration of the black population, or the concentration of black people in each vicinity, far concentrates social, economic, and political disadvantage. centralization of the black population, or the extent to which bootleg neighborhoods are located around the center of the MA, limits this group to urban centers, which in the U.S. are largely characterized by crowding and poverty. cluster of the black population, or the degree to which bootleg neighborhoods are contiguous within the MA, may exacerbate the concentration of social problems. last, unevenness of the black population, or the extent to which the symmetry of black people in each region differs from the proportion of black people in the MA as a whole, can result in far sociable isolation. 15, 16, 18 – 20 These characteristics are associated with multiple risk behaviors, including sexual risk behaviors. 1, 18, 19, 21 – 26
segregation is posited to be a cardinal causal agent of racial disparities in sexual risk. 19, 27 While studies have found that living in more segregate areas is associated with poorer health outcomes, 20, 22, 23, 28 – 31 circumscribed studies have examined the association between segregation and health behaviors. 32 – 34 To the best of our cognition, entirely two studies have empirically examined the association between segregation and sexual health outcomes. First, using national surveillance data, our research group found that certain dimensions of segregation were associated with gonorrhea rates among black people in the U.S. 35 second, we found that among adolescents and young adults, hypersegregation was not associated with a sexual risk index, which included measures of sexual bodily process, condom habit, and act of partners. 36 In this article, we assessed whether black-white segregation can help explain the black-white racial disparity in adolescent age at first sexual sexual intercourse, beyond individual- and family-level characteristics, in a nationally representative cohort of adolescents in the U.S .